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Schedule II Substances means these drugs have a “high potential for abuse” that “may lead to severe psychological or physical dependence,” and the federal government sets limits on the amount that may be manufactured each year.

ABOVE: 21 USC Sec. 812 01/22/02. Drug Enforcement Administration, US Department of Justice. www.dea.gov/pubs/csa/812.htm.
Drug Enforcement Administration, Department Of Justice: Schedule II Controlled Substance

Schedule II Controlled Substances (2002)

TITLE 21-FOOD AND DRUGS
DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION,
DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE

  • [Code of Federal Regulations]
  • [Title 21, Volume 9]
  • [Revised as of April 1, 2002]
  • From the U.S. Government Printing Office
  • via GPO Access
  • [CITE: 21 CFR 1308.12]

(a) Schedule II shall consist of the drugs and other substances, by whatever official name, common or usual name, chemical name, or brand name designated, listed in this section. Each drug or substance has been assigned the Controlled Substances Code Number set forth opposite it.

(b) Substances, vegetable origin or chemical synthesis. Unless specifically excepted or unless listed in another schedule, any of the following substances whether produced directly or indirectly by extraction from substances of vegetable origin, or independently by means of chemical synthesis, or by a combination of extraction and chemical synthesis:

(1) Opium and opiate, and any salt, compound, derivative, or preparation of opium or opiate excluding apomorphine, thebaine-derived butorphanol, dextrorphan, nalbuphine, nalmefene, naloxone, and naltrexone, and their respective salts, but including the following:

  1. Raw opium
  2. Opium extracts
  3. Opium fluid
  4. Powdered opium
  5. Granulated opium
  6. Tincture of opium
  7. Codeine
  8. Dihydroetorphine
  9. Ethylmorphine
  10. Etorphine hydrochloride
  11. Hydrocodone
  12. Hydromorphone
  13. Metopon
  14. Morphine
  15. Oxycodone
  16. Oxymorphone
  17. Thebaine

(2) Any salt, compound, derivative, or preparation thereof which is chemically equivalent or identical with any of the substances referred to in paragraph (b) (1) of this section, except that these substances shall not include the isoquinoline alkaloids of opium.

(3) Opium poppy and poppy straw.

(4) Coca leaves (9040) and any salt, compound, derivative or preparation of coca leaves including cocaine (9041) and ecgonine (9180) and their salts, isomers, derivatives and salts of isomers and derivatives), and any salt, compound, derivative, or preparation thereof which is chemically equivalent or identical with any of these substances, except that the substances shall not include decocainized coca leaves or extraction of coca leaves, which extractions do not contain cocaine or ecgonine.

(5) Concentrate of poppy straw (the crude extract of poppy straw in either liquid, solid or powder form which contains the phenanthrene alkaloids of the opium poppy), 9670.

(c) Opiates. Unless specifically excepted or unless in another schedule any of the following opiates, including its isomers, esters, ethers, salts and salts of isomers, esters and ethers whenever the existence of such isomers, esters, ethers, and salts is possible within the specific chemical designation, dextrorphan and levopropoxyphene excepted:

  1. Alfentanil
  2. Alphaprodine
  3. Anileridine
  4. Bezitramide
  5. Bulk dextropropoxyphene (non-dosage forms)
  6. Carfentanil
  7. Dihydrocodeine
  8. Diphenoxylate
  9. Fentanyl
  10. Isomethadone
  11. Levo-alphacetylmethadol [Some other names: levo-alpha-acetylmethadol, levomethadyl acetate, LAAM]
  12. Levomethorphan
  13. Levorphanol
  14. Metazocine
  15. Methadone
  16. Methadone-Intermediate 4-cyano-2-dimethylamino-4,4-diphenyl butane
  17. Moramide-Intermediate 2-methyl-3-morpholino-1, 1-diphenylpropane-carboxylic acid
  18. Pethidine (meperidine)
  19. Pethidine-Intermediate-A 4-cyano-1-methyl-4-phenylpiperidine
  20. Pethidine-Intermediate-B ethyl-4-phenylpiperidine-4-carboxylate
  21. Pethidine-Intermediate-C 1-methyl-4-phenylpiperidine-4-carboxylic acid
  22. Phenazocine
  23. Piminodine
  24. Racemethorphan
  25. Racemorphan
  26. Remifentanil
  27. Sufentanil

(d) Stimulants. Unless specifically excepted or unless listed in another schedule, any material, compound, mixture, or preparation which contains any quantity of the following substances having a stimulant effect on the central nervous system:

  1. Amphetamine its salts, optical isomers, and salts of its optical isomers [Adderall, ProCentra, Dexedrine, Dextrostat, Vyvanse]
  2. Methamphetamine its salts, isomers, and salts of its isomers [Desoxyn]
  3. Phenmetrazine and its salts
  4. Methylphenidate [Ritalin, Concerta, Focalin]

(e) Depressants. Unless specifically excepted or unless listed in another schedule, any material, compound, mixture, or preparation which contains any quantity of the following substances having a depressant effect on the central nervous system, including its salts, isomers, and salts of isomers whenever the existence of such salts, isomers, and salts of isomers is possible within the specific chemical designation:

  1. Amobarbital
  2. Glutethimide
  3. Pentobarbital
  4. Phencyclidine
  5. Secobarbital

(f) Hallucinogenic substances.

  1. (1) Nabilone [Another name for nabilone: (+/-)-trans-3-(1,1-dimethylheptyl)-6,6a,7,8,10,10a- hexahydro-1-hydroxy-6,6-dimethyl-9H-dibenzo[b,d]pyran-9-one]

(g) Immediate precursors. Unless specifically excepted or unless listed in another schedule, any material, compound, mixture, or preparation which contains any quantity of the following substances:

(1) Immediate precursor to amphetamine and methamphetamine:

  1. (i) Phenylacetone Some trade or other names: phenyl-2-propanone; P2P; benzyl methyl ketone; methyl benzyl ketone;

(2) Immediate precursors to phencyclidine (PCP):

  1. (i) 1-phenylcyclohexylamine
  2. (ii) 1-piperidinocyclohexanecarbonitrile (PCC)
ABOVE: U.S. Government Printing Office, Code of Federal Regulations, Title 21, Volume 9, Rev. April 1, 2002.frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/get-cfr.cgi?TITLE=21&PART=1308&SECTION=12&YEAR=2002&TYPE=TEXT

The effects of amphetamines are similar to cocaine, but the onset is slower and the duration is longer. Chronic abuse produces a psychosis that resembles schizophrenia: paranoia, picking at the skin, preoccupation with one's own thoughts, and auditory and visual hallucinations.

ABOVE: Drug Enforcement Administration, US Department of Justice. “Amphetamines,” Drugs of Abuse Publication. National Drug Intelligence Center, 2005 ed. www.usdoj.gov/dea/pubs/abuse.

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“All major classes of psychiatric drugs—antipsychotics, antidepressants, benzodiazepines, and stimulants for ADHD—can trigger new and more severe psychiatric symptoms in a significant percentage of patients.”

ABOVE: Whitaker, R. “Anatomy of an Epidemic: Psychiatric Drugs and the Astonishing Rise of Mental Illness in America,” Ethical Human Psychology and Psychiatry, Vol. 7 No. 1, 2005.

What do Amphetamines Include?

BRAND NAME GENERIC NAME
Adderall amphetamine plus dextroamphetamine
[instant release]
Adderall XR amphetamine plus dextroamphetamine
[extended release]
Benzedrine amphetamine
[instant release]
Biphetamine amphetamine plus dextroamphetamine
Desoxyn methamphetamine
[instant release]
Dexedrine dextroamphetamine
[instant release]
Dexedrine SR dextroamphetamine
[extended release]
Dexedrine Spansule dextroamphetamine
[extended release]
Dextrostat dextroamphetamine
[instant release]
ProCentra dextroamphetamine
[immediate release, bubblegum flavor]
Vyvanse dextroamphetamine
with lysine (lisdexamfetamine)
[extended release]
  • ALTERNATE NAMES:
  • amphetamine = amfetamine = dl-amphetamine
  • dextroamphetamine = dexamfetamine
    = dexamphetamine = d-amphetamine
  • methamphetamine = d-methamphetamine

All amphetamines have essentially the same chemical properties and actions, states a 2005 published report by the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA). Amphetamine, dextroamphetamine and methamphetamine are so alike, according to the DEA report, that even experienced users may not feel a difference between them.

ABOVE: Drug Enforcement Administration, US Department of Justice. “Amphetamines,” Drugs of Abuse Publication. National Drug Intelligence Center, 2005 ed. www.usdoj.gov/dea/pubs/abuse.

Methylphenidate Drug Names

BRAND NAME GENERIC NAME
Concerta methylphenidate hydrochloride (HCI)
[extended release]
Daytrana methylphenidate
film, transdermal
[extended release]
Focalin dextro-methylphenidate
(or, dexmethylphenidate) hydrochloride (HCI)
[instant release]
Focalin XR dextro-methylphenidate hydrochloride (HCI)
or dexmethylphenidate hydrochloride (HCI)
[extended release]
Metadate CD methylphenidate hydrochloride (HCI)
[extended release:
ONE-a-day]
Metadate ER methylphenidate hydrochloride (HCI)
[extended release:
TWO- or THREE-a-day]
Methylin methylphenidate hydrochloride
[instant release]
Methylin ER methylphenidate hydrochloride
[extended release]
Ritalin methylphenidate hydrochloride (HCI)
[instant release]
Ritalin LA methylphenidate hydrochloride (HCI)
[extended release:
one-a-day, rapid onset with two peak levels]
Ritalin SR methylphenidate hydrochloride (HCI)
[extended release:
one-a-day, slower onset with more continuous delivery]
Attenta† methylphenidate hydrochloride (HCI)
[instant release]; AU
Biphentin† methylphenidate hydrochloride (HCI)
[extended release]; CA
Equasym† methylphenidate hydrochloride (HCI)
[instant release]; EU
Equasym XL† methylphenidate hydrochloride (HCI)
[extended release]; EU
Motiron† methylphenidate hydrochloride (HCI)
[instant release]; EU
Rubifen† methylphenidate hydrochloride (HCI)
[instant release]; NZ
†Not sold in U.S.

What is Your Adderall IQ?

Amphetamine Advantage or Dangerous Delusion?

Users of Adderall feel euphoric and invincible--until the effects wear off.

Like athletes who use steroids, students who use Adderall to enhance academic performance are in many ways victims. [More]

Vyvanse Side Effects and Warnings

Although Vyvanse is referred to as “pro-drug” of dextroamphetamine, it is still an amphetamine, meaning that it is easily abused and can cause insomnia, agitation, axiety and sometimes psychotic symptoms like seeing things or becoming paranoid. The difference between Vyvanse and Adderall is that Vyvanse will work only if it is swallowed so that drug abusers will not be able to snort it or inject it. It is hoped this will limit abuse of Vyvanse. [More]

How Safe is Ritalin?

Many think methylphenidate (Ritalin) is safe, or mild, because so many children use it. However, the government classifies the psychoactive drug with cocaine and morphine because it is highly addictive. [More]

ProCentra: Liquid “Dexedrine”

ProCentra is a new name for what used to be a popular diet drug, Dexedrine. Now sold for children in bubblegum-flavored liquid and advertised as “easier to swallow.” [More]

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